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A History/Hxrstory Timeline for Beginners

This is a timeline that introduces you to a history of educational struggle working towards educational equity to address institutional racism.

  • 1909 – NACCP worked toward desegregating schools and society
  • 1929 – LULAC worked toward desegregating schools and society
  • 1946 – Mendez v. Westminster called for racial desegregation in CA schools
  • 1954 – Brown v Board of Education called for racial desegregation in U.S. schools
  • 1955 – Black Civil Rights inspired groups across racial-ethnic and class groups to engage in social movements
  • 1960’s – in various social movements, educators and scholars of color pressed schools, school districts, and textbook companies to produce and offer curricula that reflected the diversity and complexity of the United States population
  • 1964 – Civil Rights Act called for ending racial segregation in housing and employment
  • 1968 – East Los Angeles Walkouts demanded for college prep courses and that  Eurocentric curriculum in schools expand and include Mexican American history among other needs (i.e., Mexican American and culturally sensitive teachers, adequate books and buildings, an end to corporal punishment,  etc.)
  • 1968 – San Francisco State University and UC Berkeley student strikes demanded for (1) “Third World Studies” that would expand beyond the Eurocentric curriculum and include racial ethnic minorities (Native American, Chicana/o Latina/o, African American and Asian American), (2) to increase racial ethnic minority students in college, and (3) to offer community service college courses that could serve the needs of low income communities of color
  • 1969 – Ethnic Studies courses began in colleges
  • 1970s – Ethnic Studies courses began in some high schools (e.g., Berkeley High School, Woodland High School)
  • 1990 – UC and CSU students resisted Ethnic Studies college program budget cuts
  • 1993 – UCLA hunger strike for Chicana/o Studies
  • 1999 – UCB TWLF hunger strike
  • 2009 – UCB TWLF hunger strike
  • 2010 – Arizona banned the Tucson School District Mexican American Studies courses of the Ethnic Studies Program with the passage of HB 221; it led to resistance and inspiration
  • 2011 – The Academic and Social Value of Ethnic Studies: A Research Review by Dr. Christine Sleeter was published by the National Educational Association
  • 2014 – Former CA Assemblyman Luis Alejo introduced an Ethnic Studies bill for K-12
  • 2014 – CA communities began to pass High School Ethnic Studies Course Requirement Resolutions
  • 2016 – The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum, a research study from Stanford University supported Ethnic Studies 
  • 2016 – Governor Brown signed AB 2016 (Alejo Bill)  with 84% CA Legislators voting in favor; the bill led to the making of the non-mandated CA Ethnic Studies Model Curriculum for high schools
  • 2016 – over 25 districts passed Ethnic Studies resolutions
  • 2017 – Arizona judge declared the ban on Ethnic Studies in TUSD unconstitutional in December
  • 2017 – Oregon passed Ethnic Studies legislation
  • Nov 2018 – Instructional Quality Commission selected 18 Ethnic Studies educators to serve on the Advisory Committee (out of about 130 applications)
  • 2019 – Vermont passed Ethnic Studies legislation
  • Jan 2019 – State Board of Education appointed the Advisory Committee members
  • Feb 2019 – Department of Education presented an initial draft of the curriculum to the Advisory Committee, that focused on Native American, Chicana/o Latina/o, African American, and Asian American groups
  • Feb to April 2019 – Advisory Committee met for only 3 sessions (6 meetings); among the public comments presented to the Advisory Committee were from mainly Pacific Islander, Native American, Korean American, Hmong American & Arab American groups
  • April 2019 – Advisory Committee requested to extend their commitment to work on the curriculum but because of limited resources (i.e., time, writers, page limit, and travel finances) members were discharged in April as scheduled
  • May 2019 – The Instructional Quality Commission reviewed and APPROVED the CA Ethnic Studies Model Curriculum draft for public comment
  • June to Aug 15, 2019 – The Department of Education posted the draft online for public comments
  • July 29, 2019 – CA Legislative Jewish Caucus, including Chair Senator Ben Allen, signed a letter of accusations and complaints about the Draft to the Instructional Quality Commission; Allen also became a member of the Instructional Quality Commission sometime after June 4
  • July 30, 2019 – Start of negative press and misinformation about the Draft and Advisory Committee members
  • August 2019 – Members who served on the Advisory Committee understood the concerns and agreed that some edits needed to be made to the Draft but were no longer in the position to aid with editing
  • August 2019 – Members who served on the Advisory Committee received hate messages at work
  • August 14, 2019 – At a press conference, State Superintendent Thurmond said “there was no intentional omission of Jewish experience” and proposed to make the curriculum inclusive of European American groups; some CA legislators stated that the CA Ethnic Studies Model Curriculum needed to include Jewish American and European immigrant group histories
  • August 14, 2019 – Council of Ethnic Studies wrote to the State Superintendent and the President of the Board of Education confirming that the discipline of Ethnic Studies had always centered on the studies of people of color
  • August 18, 2019 – Ethnic Studies Researcher Christine Sleeter, who was cited in AB 2016, wrote to State Superintendent Tony Thurmond, to not eliminate the draft (make some edits), keep the Ethnic Studies framework, and focus on Ethnic Studies as defined by the Council for Ethnic Studies
  • August 2019 – Members who served on the Advisory Committee and other college faculty appeared on the radio to defend Ethnic Studies
  • September 2019 – Over 55 organizations with thousands of voters joined to support the draft with some edits
  • September 12, 2019 – CA Legislature approved AB114,which delayed the ESMC completion date by one year, the new completion date is March 2021
  • September 13, 2019 – The San Francisco State University Black Student Union / Third World Liberation Front Student Strike Veterans of 1968 joined Save CA Ethnic Studies
  • September 16, 2019 – State Superintendent announced a new path to revise and improve the ESMC
  • September 19-20, 2019 – Instructional Quality Commission took no vote on ESMC and heard public comments, the majority of which were in support of the model curriculum
  • March 2020 – Statutory deadline for completion of the CA Ethnic Studies Model Curriculum